Citations and Timelines

Use this tool to explore the scientific publications and chronology of events related to the Rustad-Ruby He-6 recoil experiment, and its role in the development of a unified theory of the weak nuclear force.

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Year Title Author(s) Publication Comments Excerpt(s)
1896 Discovery of radioactivity by Becquerel
1899 Alpha, beta and gamma rays identified by Rutherford and Villard
1901 Rutherford finds alpha and beta decay involve transmutation of elements
1911 Meitner and Hahn measure energy spectrum of beta particles
1912 Penetrating Radiation in Seven Free Balloon Flights V.F. Hess PZ
1912 Birth of C.S. Wu
1913 On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules Neils Bohr Philosophy Magazine
1914 Chadwick finds beta spectrum is continuous

The observed broad continuous spectrum suggested that energy is lost in the beta decay process.

1924 Birth of Stanley Ruby
1925 On Quantum Mechanics II Max Born Zeitschrift fur Physik
1926 Spinning Electrons and the Structure of Spectra G.E. Uhlenbeck and S. Goudsmit Nature
1930 Pauli letter suggests neutrino possibility Wolgang Pauli
1933 The upper limit of energy in the beta-ray spectrum of actinium B B. W. Sargent
1933 Theory of electron capture suggested by Wick and developed by Yukawa
2016 Attempt at a Theory of β Rays E. Fermi Zeitschrift fur Physik

Fermi introduces theory of beta decay, including supposition of the neutrino. Translation published by Fred L. Wilson in the American Journal of Physics, Dec. 1968

1934 Attempt at a Theory of β Rays E. Fermi Zeitschrift fur Physik

Fermi introduces theory of beta decay, including supposition of the neutrino. Translation published by Fred L. Wilson in the American Journal of Physics, Dec. 1968.

1935 On the Fermi Theory of Beta Radioactivity E. J. Konopinski and G. E. Uhlenbeck
1936 The Radiations Emitted from Artificially Produced Radioactive Substances I. The Upper Limits and Shapes of the p-Ray Spectra from Several Elements FRANZ N. D. KURIE, J. R. RICHARDSON AND H. C. PAXTON Physical Review

Kurie plots

1936 Selection Rules for the β Disintegration G. Gamow and E. Teller Physical Review
1937 K-electron capture was first observed by Luis Alvarez,
1937 Fierz 1937 interference terms
1937 Some Generalizations of the β Transformation Theory G. Gamow and E. Teller Physical Review
1940 Some Fission Products of Uranium E. Segre and C. S. Wu Physical Review

Wu's first APS publication

1940 Identi6cation of Two Radioactive Xenons from Uranium Fission C. S. Wu Physical Review

Wu's first solo publication

1941 On the Fermi Theory of Beta Radioactivity II: The “Forbidden” Spectra E. J. Konopinski and G. E. Uhlenbeck
1942 Forbidden Transitions in β-Decay and Orbital Electron Capture and Spins of Nuclei R. E. Marshak Physical Review
1942 Forbidden Transitions in Beta Decay R. E. Marshak Physical Review
1942 Experimental Evidence for the Existence of a Neutrino James S. Allen Physical Review
1943 Beta-Decay Emil Jan Konopinski Physical Review

Theoretical overview of Fermi’s theory 10 years later

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1944 Wu begins work as research physicist at Columbia University
1946 Polyelectrons John Archibald Wheeler Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
1947 Marshak-Bethe 1947 two meson theory
1947 Discovery of the pion (pi meson)
1947 Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom by a Microwave Method Willis E. Lamb, Jr. and Robert C. Retherford
1947 Stan graduates from Columbia College, begins graduate studies in physics
1947 Stanley Ruby marries Helga Ringel
1948 On the Theory of the Recoil in Beta-Decay O. Kofoed-Hansen Physical Review

Theoretical basis for recoil experiments

1948 The Beta-Spectrum of S-35 R. D. Albert and C. S. Wu Physical Review

Representative of many beta spectrum studies Wu did with collaborators throughout this period

1948 On the Self-Energy of a Bound Electron NORMAN M. KROLL AND WILLIS E. LAMB, JR.
1948 Stan passes Ph.D. qualifying exam

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1948 Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation in the Beta-Decay of He-6 James S. Allen, H. R. Paneth, and A. H. Morrish Physical Review

Predecessor He-6 experiment

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1948 The Beta-Ray Spectra of Cu-64 C. S. Wu and R. D. Albert Physical Review
1949 Stan matriculates as Ph.D. candidate

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1949 The Angular Correlation of Scattered Annihilation Radiation C.S. Wu and I. Shaknov Physical Review
1950 Cross Terms in β Decay S. R. de Groot and H. A. Tolhoek Physica

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1950 Walter Ruby born
1950 Stan completes three semesters of full-time research for the doctorate
1950 Recent Investigation of the Shapes of Beta-Ray Spectra Chien-Shiung Wu Reviews of Modern Physics

Invited paper at APS New York 1950

1951 The Angular Correlation Theorem and the Elimination of Interference Terms H. A. Tolhoek and S. R. de Groot Physical Review
1951 Mixed Invariants in Beta-Decay and Symmetries Imposed on the Interaction Hamiltonian H. A. Tolhoek and S. R. de Groot Physical Review

Cited by Rustad-Ruby

1951 Stan employment begins at Brookhaven National Laboratory

Jr. research associate

1952 Wu named associate professor of physics at Columbia
1952 Walter Kidde Laboratories Established Physics Today

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1952 The Beta-Spectrum of He6 C. S. Wu, B. M. Rustad, V. Perez-Mendez, and L. Lidofsky Physical Review

Used Columbia spectrometer to calculate revised comparative lifetime of He6

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1952 NUCLEAR RECOIL AND DETECTION OF THE NEUTRINO O. KOFOED-HANSEN Physica

Review of early recoil experiments says Allen He6 result is “tentative”

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1952 INTERFERENCE TERMS AND SYMMETRY PRINCIPLES IN THE THEORY OF BETA DECAY WITH MIXED INVARIANTS S. R. DE GROOT Physica

Determination of mixing ratios of F and GT, He6 and Ne19 are needed

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1952 BETA DISINTEGRATION, ALLOWED AND FORBIDDEN DECAY C. S. Wu Physica

Wu overiew of the coupling constant problem.
Covers recalculation of He6 endpoint.
Cites R-R work via private communication.

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1952 Daniel Ruby born
1952 Correlation Between Electron and Recoil Nucleus in He-6 Decay Brice M. Rustad and Stanley L. Ruby Physical Review

First publication of Rustad-Ruby results. Together with Allen-Jentschke, seen as definitive determination of Tensor coupling in GT interactions

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1953 Stan employment begins at IBM Endicott
1953 The Linear Combination in β Decay D. C. Peaslee Physical Review
1953 Theta-tau problem
1953 The Fermi Term in Beta-Neutrino Correlation D. C. Peaslee Physical Review

Success of Rustad-Ruby for GT leads to search for similar experiment for F

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1952 Unknown Title J. S. Allen and W. K. Jentschke Physical Review

Reported at APS meeting

1953 The Universal Fermi Interaction E. J. Konopinski and H. M. Mahmoud Physical Review

Cites significance of Rustad-Ruby result

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1954 A STUDY OF MONOMOLECULAR FILMS BY TRACER TECHNIQUE Stanley Ruby ProQuest Dissertation Database

Stanley Ruby files alternate dissertation in applied science. Stan’s dissertation
 in metallurgy for Prof. Hassialis??

1954 Nuclear Recoil in Beta Decay B. W. Ridley

Franklin pro-He6 citation
PhD thesis

1954 Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation in the Beta Decay of Neon-19 D. R. Maxson, J. S. Allen, and W. K. Jentschke Physical Review

Assumes validity of tensor result of Allen-Jentschke and Rustad-Ruby

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1954 Report by Bellamy and Moorhouse on Nuclear and Meson Physics International Conference in Glasgow Bellamy and Moorhouse Nature

Report by Bellamy and Moorhouse on Nuclear and Meson Physics International Conference in Glasgow includes summary of Wu’s talk on the interaction in beta decay

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1954 Joanne Ruby born
1955 Alignment of Cerium-141 and Newdymium -147 Nuclei E. Ambler, R. P. Hudson and G. M. Temmer Physical Review
1954 Gamow-Teller Interaction in the Decay of He6 B. M. Rustad and S. L. Ruby Physical Review

The classic He-6 recoil experiment by Rustad-Ruby

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1955 Fermi and Atomic Energy Walter H. Zinn
1955 Neutrino Recoil Experiments O. Kofoed-Hansen Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Franklin pro-He6 citation 
Can't find 1955 citation,. It was collected in 1965 book but I don’t have text.

1955 Meson Experiments with Enrico Fermi Herbert L. Anderson
1955 Stan employment begins at Walter Kidde Nuclear Labs
1955 Fermi and Neutron Physics Emilio Segre Reviews of Modern Physics

Memoir of Fermi in the early 30s

1955 Fermi's Theory of Beta-Decay E. J. Konopinski Reviews of Modern Physics

History of beta theory and experiment

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1955 Investigation of Neutron Beta Decay P. E. Spivak, A. N. Sosnovsky, A. Y. Prokofiev and V. S. Sokolov, USSR PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE PEACEFUL USES OF ATOMIC ENERGY

USSR

1956 Alignment of Three Odd-A Rare Earth Nuclei E. Ambler, R. P. Hudson and G. M. Temmer Physical Review
1956 First direct observation of the neutrino by Cowan Reines
1956 Low-Temperature Alignment of Radioactive Nuclei National Bureau of Standards Office of Technical Information
1956 Stan employment begins at Westinghouse Radiation and Nucleonics Lab
1956 Sixth Annual Rochester Conference

In discussion of θ-τ puzzle, Feynman questions necessity for parity but places bet against non-conservation
TD Lee cites R-R as problem

1956 Decay of A-41 A. Schwarzschild, B. M. Rustad, and C. S. Wu Physical Review

Note the three authors


1956 Decay of A-35 O. C. Kistner, A. Schwarzschild, and B. M. Rustad

Finds that A35 is a suitable source for identifying the Fermi invariant in the beta- decay interaction by an angular correlation experiment.

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1956 Question of Parity Conservation in Weak Interactions T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang Physical Review

Nobel-winning paper
On first glance it seems unrelated to recoil experiments

1956 First successful observation of parity non-conversion
1957 Wu and team drink champagne
1957 Observations of the Failure of Conservation of Parity and Charge Conjugation in Meson Decays: the Magnetic Moment of the Free Muon Richard L. Garwin, Leon Lederman, and Marcel Weinrich

Garwin-Lederman confirms theory using mesons

1957 Experimental Test of Parity Conservation in Beta Decay C. S. Wu, E. Ambler, R. W. Hayward, D. D. Hoppes, and R. P. Hudson

Wu’s famous experiment that confirms Lee-Yang suggestion

1957 Basic Concept in Physics Is Reported Upset in Tests; Conservation of Parity Law in Nuclear Theory Challenged by Scientists at Columbia and Princeton New York Times

Big media splash by Columbia on parity violation discoveries

1957 Reversal of Parity Law in Nuclear Physics National Bureau of Standards Office of Technical Information
1957 Seventh Annual Rochester Conference

Feynman informally suggests early version of VA theory
International Conference on High Energy Physics

1957 Further Experiments on β Decay of Polarized Nuclei* E. AMBLER, R. W. HAYWARD, D. D. HOPPE, R. P. HUDSON, AND C. S. WU Physical Review

These results were reported at the New York Meeting of the American Physical Society of February 2, 1957 (C. S. Wu, post-deadline paper).
Positive R-R citation

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1957 Angular Correlations S. Devons and L. J. B. Goldfarb Handbuch der Physik 1957, XLII

R-R cited in detail as definitive ST

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1957 Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation in the Positron Decay of Argon 35 W. B. Herrmannsfeldt, D. R. Maxson, P. Stahelin, and J. S. Allen Physical Review Letters

The first experiment with contadictory results from He-6
. Paper cites Kistner-Schwarzschild-Rustad paper on suitability of A35 for correlation experiment.

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1957 Feynman drops in at Wu’s office
1957 Theoretical Implications of Parity Violations in Beta Interactions T. D. Lee Proceedings of the Rehovot Conference on Nuclear Structure

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1957 Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation H. Frauenfelder Proceedings of the Rehovot Conference on Nuclear Structure

Illinois team frames the experimental conundrum

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1957 Theory of the classical Beta-Decay Measurements E. J. Konopinski Proceedings of the Rehovot Conference on Nuclear Structure

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1957 Electron-Neutrino Correlation P. E. Cavanagh Proceedings of the Rehovot Conference on Nuclear Structure

Report on Ridley experiment with discussion

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1957 Experimental Evidence for Non-Conservation of Parity and Charge Conjugation in Beta Decay C. S. Wu Proceedings of the Rehovot Conference on Nuclear Structure

Wu obliquely refers to classic experiments but focuses on post-parity work

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1957 Theory of the Fermi Interaction R. P. Feynman and M. Gell-Mann Physical Review

Feynman calls for He6 experiment to be reviewed
Classic VA paper beat Marshak-Sudarshan to publication.

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1957 First-Forbidden Transitions in Parity-Nonconserving Beta Decay Masato Morita and Reiko Saito Morita Physical Review
1957 Conference on Nuclear Structure at Weizmann Institute, Rehovoth, Israel

Contradictions among classical recoil experiments are highlighted at international physics conference featuring Lee and Wu. 

1957 The Nature of the Four-Fermion Interaction E. C. G. Sudarshan and R. E. Marshak Proc. of the Conference on Mesons and Newly-Discovered Particles, Padua-Venice

Marshak gives Sudarshan’s experimental review at Padua conference, calling for the He6 experiment to be redone

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1957 THE ELECTRON-NEUTRINO ANGULAR CORRELATION IN DECAY OF Ne-23 B. W. Ridley Nuclear Physics

Finds Ruby-Rustad in disagreement with other recent results

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1957 Helicity of Neutrinos M. Goldhaber, L. Grodzins, and A. W. Sunyar Physical Review

More experimental support for VA; He6 is an outlier.

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1958 Weak interactions — Leptonic modes Salam
1958 Measurements of Asymmetries in the Decay of Polarized Neutrons M. T. Burgy, V. E. Krohn, T. B. Novey, G. R. Ringo, and V. L. Telegdi
1958 Post-Conference Summary of Recent Developments in Beta-Decay H. J. Lipkin Proceedings of the Rehovot Conference on Nuclear Structure

Added in proof
Reports on “non-classical recoil experiments” including Goldhaber, Grodzins, Sunyar

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1958 Chirality Invariance and the Universal Fermi Interaction E. C. G. Sudarshan and R. E. Marshak Physical Review

Sudarshan-Marshak cite private communication with Wu

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1958 Post-deadline paper by Rustad and Ruby B. M. Rustad and S. L. Ruby American Physical Society meeting

Text and abstract not recorded. 
Franklin summarizes as mea culpa
. Other papers cite as acknowledgement of error.

1958 Non-Conservation of Parity A. Salam Nature

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1958 Possible Experiments for Determination of Beta Interactions M. Morita, R.S. Morita and M. Yamada Physical Review
1958 Measurements of Asymmetries in the Decay of Polarized Neutrons M.T. Burgy, V.E. Krohn, T.B. Novey, G.R. Ringo and V.L. Telegdi Physical Review
1958 A Critical Examination of the He-6 Recoil Experiment of Rustad and Ruby C. S. Wu and A. Schwarzschild Columbia University Dept. of Physics internal report

Wu repudiates Rustad-Ruby experiment in unpublished CU-173 Columbia University report. Franklin says letter from Wu to Cavanaugh suggests reexamination was done in November.

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1958 Effect of Monoenergetic Fast Neutrons on n-Type Germanium S. L. Ruby, F. D. Schupp, and E. D. Wolley

Stan working on radiation effects

1958 Determination of the Gamow-Teller Beta-Decay Interaction From the Decay of Helium-6 W. B. Herrmannsfeldt, R. L. Burman, P. Stahelin, J. S. Allen, and T. H. Braid Physical Review Letters

Directly contradictory results

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1958 Upper Limit to the Magnetic Moment of He-6 E. D. Commins and P. Kusch

A. Franklin assisted in taking data and performing calculations.

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1958 The Measurement of Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlations [and Discussion] B. W. Ridley and discussants Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences

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1958 On the Earlier and More Recent History of the Neutrino Pauli

Wolfgang Pauli weighs in on the He6 situation
Republication of original lecture from 1/21/1957

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1958 Review: Proceedings of the Rehovoth Conference on Nuclear Structure held at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth John P. Hummel Journal of the American Chemical Society

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1959 Ratio of the Gamow-Teller and Fermi Coupling Constants Determined from ft Values O. C. Kistner and B. M. Rustad Physical Review
1959 Determination of the Beta-Decay Interaction from Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation Measurements J. S. Allen, R. L. Burman, W. B. Herrmannsfeldt, P. Stahelin, and T. H. Braid Physical Review
1959 Determination of the Beta-Decay Interaction From Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation Experiments James S. Allen Reviews of Modern Physics

Allen published two versions of the paper

1959 In commemoration of Wolfgang Pauli Marcus E. Fierz and Victor F. Weisskopf Physics Today
1959 Parity Experirnents in Beta Decays C. S. Wu Reviews of Modern Physics

Wu evaluates the history of “classical” (pre-parity) beta-decay experiments in this 1959 review.

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1960 The Neutrino C. S. Wu

Chapter in Wolfgang Pauli memorial volume edited by Fierz and Weisskopf

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1960 Mössbauer Effect in Ferrocyanide S. L. RUBY , L. M. EPSTEIN, AND K. H. SUN Review of Scientific Instruments

Stan's first Mössbauer paper
the first three-line folded spectrum of 57Fe

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1960 EVIDENCE FOR QUADRUPOLE INTERACTION OF Fe AND INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL BINDING ON NUCLEAR GAMMA-RAY ENERGY O. C. Kistner and A. W. Sunyar Physical Review Letters

Important early Mössbauer paper

1960 Acoustically Modulated Gamma Rays From Fe-57 S. L. Ruby and D. I. Bolef Physical Review Letters
1961 Recoilless Nuclear Resonance Absorption of Gamma Radiation Rudolf L. Mössbauer Nobel Lecture
1961 THE ELECTRON-NEUTRINO ANGULAR CORRELATION IN BETA DECAY OF HELIUM 6 B. W. Ridley Nuclear Physics

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1961 Critical Comments on the Investigation of the Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation by the Cloud Chamber Method A. Szalay, J. Csikai and J. Bacso Acta Phys. Hungary

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1961 Line Shape in Mössbauer Spectroscopy Stanley L. Ruby and John M.Hicks Review of Scientific Instruments
1961 Stan fellowship begins at Soreq/IAEC
1961 Mössbauer Study of Isomer Shift, Quadrupole Interaction, and Hyperfine Field in Several Oxides Containing Fe" G. Shirane, D. E. Cox, and S. L. Ruby Physical Review
1962 The Mössbauer Effect Hans Frauenfelder

First Mössbauer book includes Ruby papers

1962 A History of the Atomic Energy Commission: The New World (1939-1946 RICHARD G. HEWLETT AND OSCAR E. ANDERSON, JR.
1962 Mössbauer Spectra of Some Iron Complexes L.M. Epstein Journal of Chemical Physics
1962 Lifetimes of the Low-Energy M1 Transitions in La-137 and Kr-83 S. L. Ruby, Y. Hazoni, and M. Pasternak Physical Review

Stan’s work at Soreq Research Establishment, Israel Atomic Energy Commission

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1963 Average Neutron Energy of Reactor Spectra and Its Influence on Displacement Damage A.D. Kantz Journal of Applied Physics
1963 Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation in the Decay of He6 Joseph B. Vise and Brice M. Rustad Physical Review

Complete redo by Rustad

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1964 Stan employment begins at Argonne National Labs
1964 Mössbauer Effect for Surface Atoms: Iron57 at the Surface of η A12O3 P.A. Flinn, S.L. Ruby, W.L. Kehl Science
1964 The Universal Fermi Interaction and the Conserved Vector Current in Beta Decay C. S. Wu Reviews of Modern Physics
1965 Strong Inference and Weak Interaction Hafner-Presswood
1966 Thirty Years That Shook Physics: The Story of Quantum Theory George Gamow Doubleday
1966 Mössbauer Effect in Compounds of I127 G.J.Perlow Journal of Chemical Physics
1966 Effect of Zero-Point Motion on the Mössbauer Spectra of K4Fe(CN)6 • 3H2O Y. Hazony Journal of Chemical Physics
1966 Beta Decay C.S. Wu and S.A. Moszkowski

Wu's more distant review of the He6 events

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1966 Theory of Beta Decay: An Exposition and a History S. B. Treiman and Lawrence M. Langer Science

Book reviews of books by Konopinski and Wu-Moszkowski

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1967 Interpretation of Mössbauer Measurements in Tin and Antimony S. L. Ruby, G. M. Kalvius, G. B. Beard, and R. E. Snyder
1967 The Half-Life of the Free Neutron C.J. Christensen %% B.M. Rustad
1967 Interpretation of Møossbauer Measurements in Tin and Antimony S.L. Ruby and G.M. Kalvius Physical Review
1968 INTRODUCTION KAI SIEGBAHN ALPHA-, BETA- AND GAMMA-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Excellent summary and context of issue from 10 years’ distance
Book includes Koefoed 1955 article that I don’t have

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1968 Death of Brice Rustad
1968 Dynamics of Krypton Atoms in Clathrate by the Mössbauer Technique Y. Hazony and S.L. Ruby Journal of Chemical Physics
1969 Scattering of Antineutrons by Protons A. D. Franklin and R. R. Socash Physical Review
1970 Measurement of Angular Correlations in the Decay of Polarized Neutrons C. J. Christensen, V. E. Krohn, and G. R. Ringo Physical Review C
1971 Free-Neutron Beta-Decay Half-Life C. J. Christensen, A. Nielsen, A. Bahnsen, W. K. Brown, and B. M. Rustad

Rustad is a posthumous author

1972 Mechanically Chopped Gamma Rays S. L. Ruby, R. S. Preston, C. E. Skov, and B. J. Zabransky Physical Review A

Important work by Stan

1973 Why Misfit When You Already Have Chi-Squared? S. L. Ruby Mössbauer Effect Methodologies
1974 Measurement of the KL0~ 7r'7I 7ro Dalitz Plot R. Messner, A. Franklin, R. Morse, U. Nauenberg, D. Hitlin, J. Liu, R. Piccioni, and D. Dorfan Physical Review Letters
1974 MÖSSBAUER EXPERIMENTS WITHOUT CONVENTIONAL SOURCES S. L. Ruby Journal de Physique Colloques

Stan suggests use of synchrotron radiation for Mössbauer work

1975 Diffusion of iron ions in a cold liquid: Evidence against a "jump" model S. L. Ruby, J. C. Love,t P. A. Flinn,t and B. J. Zabransky Applied Physics Letters

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1976 MOLECULAR MOTIONS IN A VISCOUS ORGANIC LIQUID : FERROCENE IN COLD BUTYL PHTHALATE S. L. RUBY, B. J. ZABRANSKY and P. A. FLINN Journal de Physique Colloques

Cited as “classical paper” by Litterst

1976 MOTIONS IN A VISCOUS INORGANIC LIQUID : FERROUS ION IN COLD PHOSPHORIC ACID P. A. FLINN, B. J. ZABRANSKY and S. L. RUBY Journal de Physique Colloques

Cited as “classical paper” by Litterst

1980 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics to Cronin and Fitch Science Magazine
1980 A Resonance Raman:Iodine Mssbauer Investigation of the Starch-IodLne Structure- Aqueous Solution and Iodine Vapor Preparations Robert C. Teitelbaum, Stanley L. Ruby and Tobin J. Marks 1980

Work done by Ruby with Northwestern chemists for AEC contract

1980 Argonne Authors Argonne news,

POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS OF THE MÖSSBAUER TECHNIQUE IN WASTE MANAGEMENT STUDIES 
Bio demonstrates degree handicap

1982 Stan employment begins at Stanford SSRL
1982 Weak Interactions of the Neutron J. Byrne Reports on Progress in Physics
1984 From the Discovery of the Neutron to the Discovery of Nuclear Fission Edourdo Amaldi Physics Reports

History of nuclear science in the 1930s
Section 3 is beta decay and neutrinos, including a summary of later developments

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1984 Symmetry Destroyed: The Failure of Parity Krishna Myneni ccreweb.org
1984 Symmetry Destroyed: The Failure of Parity Krishna Myneni
1985 The 7 Percent Solution Richard P. Feynman Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman

pp. 226-234
Feynmann’s aha moment was when he saw the figure in Rustad-Ruby

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1985 Leland John Haworth M. Goldhaber
1986 The Neglect of Experiment Allan Franklin Cambridge University Press
1986 Experiment and the Development of the Theory of Weak Interactions: Fermi’s Theory Allan Franklin Philosophy of Science Association
1986 The Second Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Twentieth-Century Physics Robert P. Crease and Charles C. Mann McMillan
1987 How Experiments End Peter Gallison University of Chicago Press
1988 From two mesons and weak currents to the standard model R. E. Marshak

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1989 John Ray Dunning Herbert L. Anderson
1990 Allan Franklin, Right or Wrong Ackerman
1990 Allan Franklin'sTranscendental Physics Lynch
1990 Reason Enough? More on Parity-Violation and Electroweak Gauge Theory Pickering
1990 Do Mutants Have to be Slain, or Do They Die of Natural Causes? Franklin
1990 Experiment Right or Wrong Allan Franklin

Full case study of Rustad-Ruby history

1990 Studying Hyperfine Fields with Resonant Nuclear Diffraction of X-rays (invited) J. Arthur, D.E. Brown, S.L. Ruby, G.S. Brown Journal of Applied Physics
1995 The appearance and disappearance of the 27-keV neutrino Allan Franklin
1996 Chinese edition of Wu biography Tsai-Chien Chiang
1997 The Pain and Joy of a Major Scientific Discovery Marshak
1997 The Mössbauer effect explained Vandegrift-Fultz
1997 Death of C.S. Wu
1997 History of parity violation experiment Richard L. Garwin and Leon M. Lederman Nature
1998 Selectivity and the Production of Experimental Results Allan Franklin Arch. Hist. Exact Sci.
1998 Before the Beginning: The Early History of Israel's Nuclear Project (1948–1954) Avner Cohen Israel Studies

Full of great history on Lipkin, Goldring, de Shalit, etc.

1998 Appendix 8: The Articulation of Theory: Weak Interactions Allan Franklin

Appendix of Franklin's encycopedia article Experiment in Physics that reviews the historical context and circumstances of the Rustad-Ruby experiment.

1998 Experiment in Physics Allan Franklin Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The full text of Franklin's encyclopedia article.

1999 A Unique Institution: The National Bureau of Standards 1950-1969 Elio Passaglia with Karma A. Beal NIST Special Publication 925

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2000 Columbia physics in the fifties: Untold tales Joseph Sucher

The life of a Columbia physics grad student in the 50s


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2000 Making Physics: A Biography of Brookhaven National Laboratory 1946-1972 Robert P. Crease University of Chicago Press
2001 Reversal of the Parity Conservation Law in Nuclear Physics Ralph P. Hudson NIST Special Publication 958: A Century of Excellence 1901-2000

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2001 CHIEN-SHIUNG WU 29 May 1912-16 February 1997 Leon Lidofsky Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society

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2001 Richard Garwin Oral History Interviewed by W. Patrick McCray American Institute of Physics Oral Histories

Covers Garwin's recollections of the parity violation experiments, including his role directing Wu to NBS and the circumstances of his and Lederman's K-meson experiment.

2002 Neutrinos and Implications for Physics Beyond the Standard Model Maurice Goldhaber
2002 Neutrinos, Past and Present Maurice Goldhaber Conference: Neutrinos and Implications for Physics Beyond the Standard Model
2004 Death of Stanley L. Ruby
2005 Stanley Ruby, 1924-2004 Gopal Shenoy, Gennadii Smirnov, and John Arthur Hyperfine Interactions
2006 New Insights to Old Problems T.D Lee
2006 Viki Weisskopf: Searching for Simplicity in a Complicated World David Kaiser
2006 A Different Laboratory Tale: Fifty Years of Mössbauer Spectroscopy Catherine Westfall
2007 Scientific legacy of Stanley Ruby Shenoy
2008 Ending the Mendel-Fisher Controversy Allan Franklin University of Pittsburgh Press
2008 Are the Laws of Physics Inevitable? Allan Franklin
2008 Wu Papers Container Listdoc Columbia University Library
2008 50 Years of the Mössbauer Effect John G. Stevens et. al. Mösssbauer Spectroscopy news,letter

Readable history of Mossbauser science with numerous Stan Ruby mentions

2008 Wolfgang Pauli and Modern Physics Norbert Straumann
2009 V-A theory: a view from the outside Das
2009 50 Years of V-A (Living Dangerously) Pakvassa Journal of Physics Conference Series

Historical review of Sudarshan-Marshak VA story

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2009 Valentine Louis Telegdi. 11 January 1922 −− 8 April 2006 Laurie M. Brown Biographical Memoirs of the Fellows of the Royal Society

Recounts story of delayed publication of his parity paper

2010 Gravity Waves and Neutrinos: The Later Work of Joseph Weber Allan Franklin Perspectives on Science
2010 The Machine Speaks Falsely Allan Franklin Spontaneous Generations
2012 RMS: Chapter 2 Rudolf Mössbauer in Munich G.M. Kalvius and P. Kienle Springer

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2012 RMS: Chapter 5 The Early Iron Age of the Mössbauer Era Stanley S. Hanna Springer

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2012 The Rudolf Mössbauer Story Kalvius-Kienle

Review of the history and current directions of the Mössbauer effect 50 years after its discovery

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2012 RMS: Chapter 16 Coherent Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence G.V. Smirnov Springer

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2012 Kernreaktionen III / Nuclear Reactions III
2012 RMS: Chapter 6 The Early Developments of the Theory of the Mössbauer Effect Harry J. Lipkin Springer

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2012 RMS: Chapter 17 Nuclear Resonance Scattering of Synchrotron Radiation as a Unique Electronic, Structural, and Thermodynamic Probe E. Ercan Alp, Wolfgang Sturhahn, Thomas S. Toellner, Jiyong Zhao, and Bogdan M. Leu Springer

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2012 RMS: Chapter 8 The World Beyond Iron G. Michael Kalvius Springer

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2012 RMS: Chapter 18 Dreams with Synchrotron Radiation G.K. Shenoy RMS:

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2012 My Life in Nuclear Physics, Photography, and Opera Norton M. Hintz Physics in Perspective
2012 Parity Violations David Bugg Physics World

Letters section
Anecdote involving Feynman and Wu at the 1958 APS meeting
Or does the author mean 1957?

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2013 Channeling Ada Lovelace: Chien-Shiung Wu, Courageous Hero of Physics Maia Weinstock Scientific American Blogs
2014 Madame Wu Chien-Shiung: The First Lady of Physics Research Tsai-Chien Chiang
Translation by Wong Tang-Fong World Scientific

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1997 Parity and chivalry in nuclear physics Nicholas Kurti and Christine Sutton Nature

Argument by Oxford physicists for greater credit for parity violation experiment to the NBS team.