The Ringels in Berlin—the Nazi years

The Ringel family endured Nazi persecutions in the 1930s leading up to Hermann's sudden death in July 1938 on the eve of his family's planned flight from Germany. In October, Elly and Helga escaped the country, leaving behind their German legacy. The Nazi authorities seized and sold the assets of the Hermann Ringel Co. 

Discrepancy on Betty’s place of death

Following up the previous post to resolve discrepancies in the two Betty Twiasschor records, The two records are from distinct sources. The second one records the details of her Berlin deportation on April 4, 1942, where it says her destination is the Warsaw ghetto. It also shows a place of death as Majdanek, but that may be incorrect. The first record (I should swap the order) shows her second transport from Warsaw to Sobibor two months later on June 13, 1942. I would regard that as more likely to be accurate as to her place of death. 

Pinkas Twiasschor's flight went through Slovenia and Italy's Asti province

The data above is given for Pinkas Twiasschor in an Italian web site Escape stories: from Vicenza to the United States about the Fort Ontario experience. There are several important details to note. First, under "Family ties" he is described as "Solo." There is no mention of having had a wife and two daughters. Second, the three locations given for "Place of residence or internment before Fort Ontario" give us an idea of the route of Pinkas' flight from the Nazis. 

He was first in the Slovenian capital of Ljubljana, then the northern Italian town of Nizza Monferrato, and finally the southern Italian town of Ferramonti where a large internment camp was located. 

There will be more to learn here, but for starters is this page on the History of the Holocaust in Slovenia. I will cite a short section.  

In light of these circumstances, in 1941 the Jewish refugees from the Slovenian territory occupied by Germans managed to retreat to safety temporarily. Most of them initially fled to Ljubljana, where they joined large numbers of other Jewish refugees. In the end of August 1941 over 400 Jewish refugees from the Slovenian Styria and Upper Carniola, Germany, Austria, and more and more often from Croatia were located in Ljubljana. Usually they did not intend to stay in Ljubljana for long, but rather headed onwards to Italy. Despite the strict Italian anti-Jewish legislation Italy was an attractive destination for the refugees fleeing from the Nazi persecution. Until 1943 the level of the Italian anti-Jewish violence was extremely benign in comparison with the Nazi Germany. Jewish refugees and other Jews with foreign citizenship, also those in the Ljubljana Province, were soon subject to internment in Italy in accordance with the Italian racial legislation.


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