journal article

Selected Image Date Publication Author(s) Citation title Comments
Physical Review M. Morita, R.S. Morita and M. Yamada Possible Experiments for Determination of Beta Interactions

Wu suggested this work to visiting Japanese scientists. The footnote contains the best-available summary of the recent RR post-deadline paper.

January 16, 1934 Zeitschrift fur Physik E. Fermi Attempt at a Theory of Beta Rays

Fermi introduces theory of beta decay, including supposition of the neutrino. Translation published by Fred L. Wilson in the American Journal of Physics, Dec. 1968.

July 1, 1935 Physical Review E. J. Konopinski and G. E. Uhlenbeck On the Fermi Theory of Beta Radioactivity
June 15, 1936 Physical Review G. Gamow and E. Teller Selection Rules for the β Disintegration
February 15, 1937 Physical Review G. Gamow and E. Teller Some Generalizations of the Beta Transformation Theory
August 15, 1941 Physical Review E. J. Konopinski and G. E. Uhlenbeck On the Fermi Theory of Beta Radioactivity II: The “Forbidden” Spectra

Part 2 of the K-U modification for "forbidden" beta decay spectra. It led to the expectation of a tensor form in Gamow-Teller decays, which is what RR later confirmed. Later work proved both K-U and RR to be incorrect.

April 1, 1942 Physical Review R. E. Marshak Forbidden Transitions in Beta-Decay and Orbital Electron Capture and Spins of Nuclei
October 1, 1943 Reviews of Modern Physics Emil Jan Konopinski Beta-Decay

Theoretical overview of Fermi’s theory 10 years later

October 1943 Reviews of Modern Physics Emil Jan Konopinski Beta-Decay
December 15, 1948 Physical Review O. Kofoed-Hansen On the Theory of the Recoil in Beta-Decay

Theoretical basis for recoil experiments

February 15, 1949 Physical Review James S. Allen, H. R. Paneth, and A. H. Morrish Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation in the Beta-Decay of He6

Predecessor He-6 experiment

May 1950 Physica S. R. de Groot and H. A. Tolhoek On the theory of beta-radioactivity | the use of linear combinations of invariants in the interaction Hamiltonian
October 1950 Reviews of Modern Physics Chien-Shiung Wu Recent Investigation of the Shapes of Beta-Ray Spectra

Invited paper at APS New York 1950 summarized Wu's beta-decay experimental work.


Determination of mixing ratios of F and GT, He6 and Ne19 are needed

March 21, 1953 Progress of Theoretical Physics Masato MORITA On the Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation

Early paper by Morita cites Rustad-Ruby results one month after publication.

June 24, 1953 Physical Review E. J. Konopinski and H. M. Mahmoud The Universal Fermi Interaction

Cites significance of Rustad-Ruby result

December 1953 Annual Review of Nuclear Science E J Konopinski, L M Langer The Experimental Clarification of the Theory of beta-Decay
January 1, 1955 Physical Review D. R. Maxson, J. S. Allen, and W. K. Jentschke Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation in the Beta Decay of Neon-19

Assumes validity of tensor result of Allen-Jentschke and Rustad-Ruby

1955 Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy O. Kofoed-Hansen Neutrino Recoil Experiments

Franklin pro-He6 citation 
Can't find 1955 citation,. It was collected in 1965 book but I don’t have text.

February 15, 1955 Physical Review B. M. Rustad and S. L. Ruby Gamow-Teller Interaction in the Decay of He6

The classic He-6 recoil experiment by Rustad-Ruby

March 1, 1955 Physical Review E. Ambler, R. P. Hudson and G. M. Temmer Alignment of Cerium-141 and Neodymium-147 Nuclei

Earlier work by Ambler, Hudson and Temmer

July 1, 1955 Reviews of Modern Physics E. J. Konopinski Fermi's Theory of Beta-Decay

1955 retrospective review of beta theory and experiment finds that He6 directional correlation experiment showing a tensor interaction is consistent with theory

July 1, 1955 Reviews of Modern Physics Herbert L. Anderson Meson Experiments with Enrico Fermi
January 1, 1956 Physical Review E. Ambler, R. P. Hudson and G. M. Temmer Alignment of Three Odd-A Rare Earth Nuclei

1956 work by Ambler and Hudson of National Bureau of Standards


Danish beta decay experts review the likely coupling constants, citing RR as determining tensor coupling in GT transitions.

September 15, 1956 Physical Review A. Schwarzschild, B. M. Rustad, and C. S. Wu Decay of A41

Note the three authors
. Rustad remained in the fold before and after the reversal of the Rustad-Ruby experiment. Schwarzchild would later collaborate with Wu on the Critical Examination report.

October 1, 1956 Physical Review O. C. Kistner, A. Schwarzschild, and B. M. Rustad Decay of A35

Finds that A35 is a suitable source for identifying the Fermi invariant in the beta- decay interaction by an angular correlation experiment. Later, such an experiment by Hammersfeld was a key piece of evidence in the RR reversal.

September 22, 1957 Proc. of the Conference on Mesons and Newly-Discovered Particles, Padua-Venice E. C. G. Sudarshan and R. E. Marshak The Nature of the Four-Fermion Interaction

Marshak gives Sudarshan’s experimental review at Padua conference, calling for the He6 experiment to be redone. This paper is the basis for Sudarshan and Marshak's claim of priority over Feynman and Gell-Mann for the V–A theory.

January 1, 1958 Physical Review R. P. Feynman and M. Gell-Mann Theory of the Fermi Interaction

Feynman calls for He6 experiment to be reviewed
Classic VA paper beat Marshak-Sudarshan to publication.

July 15, 1958 Physical Review Letters W. B. Herrmannsfeldt, R. L. Burman, P. Stahelin, J. S. Allen, and T. H. Braid Determination of the Gamow-Teller Beta-Decay Interaction From the Decay of Helium-6

Experiment of He6 decay by Illinois team cites Rustad-Ruby He6 half-life calculation while reaching contradictory result.

July 1, 1959 Reviews of Modern Physics James S. Allen Determination of the Beta-Decay Interaction From Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation Experiments

Allen published two versions of the paper

July 1, 1959 Reviews of Modern Physics C. S. Wu Parity Experiments in Beta Decays

Wu evaluates the history of “classical” (pre-parity) beta-decay experiments in this 1959 review.


Another He6 recoil setup in 1961 by the British researcher Ridley confirms axial vector interaction in GT decays.

February 15, 1962 Physical Review G. Shirane, D. E. Cox, and S. L. Ruby Mössbauer Study of Isomer Shift, Quadrupole Interaction, and Hyperfine Field in Several Oxides Containing Fe57
January 15, 1963 Physical Review S. L. Ruby, Y. Hazoni, and M. Pasternak Lifetimes of the Low-Energy M1 Transitions in La-137 and Kr-83

Stan’s work at Soreq Research Establishment, Israel Atomic Energy Commission

December 15, 1963 Physical Review Joseph B. Vise and Brice M. Rustad Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation in the Decay of He6

Complete redo by Rustad and Joseph Vise in 1963.

May 27, 1975 Applied Physics Letters S. L. Ruby, J. C. Love, P. A. Flinn, and B. J. Zabransky Diffusion of iron ions in a cold liquid: Evidence against a "jump" model

Paper given at Argonne National Laboratory Specialists’ Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Nuclear Waste Management

1986 Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, vol. 1986 Allan Franklin Experiment and the Development of the Theory of Weak Interactions: Fermi’s Theory

Franklin's detailed study of theoretical errors in understanding of beta decay.

1996 Hyperfine Interactions G.V. Smirnov Nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation
July 2000 Electronic Journal of Differential Equations Joseph Sucher Columbia physics in the fifties: Untold tales

The life of a Columbia physics grad student in the 50s

July 2005 Scientific Values and Civic Virtues Allan Franklin The Rise and Fall of Emil Konopinski's Theory of Beta Decay

Franklin's study of the K-U modification of the Fermi theory, and its eventual reversal—a theoretical error that preceded the RR experimental error in the history of beta decay research. 

September 2005 Physics in Perspective Catherine Westfall A Different Laboratory Tale: Fifty Years of Mössbauer Spectroscopy
2006 Physics in Perspective Catherine Westfall A Different Laboratory Tale: Fifty Years of Mössbauer Spectroscopy
January 9, 2007 Hyperfine Interactions G. K. Shenoy Scientific legacy of Stanley Ruby

First presented at the 4th Nassau Mössbauer Symposium, January 2006, and later published in the conference proceedings.

June 19, 2008 Physics in Perspective Allan Franklin Are the Laws of Physics Inevitable?

Franklin's argument against social constructionism in the scientific process uses the history of beta decay theory and experiment as a case study for empiricism. Despite a series of scientific errors, including RR, the underlying physical truth was finally revealed.